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The words гра́вер and гравёр as a result of interlingual contacts

A.A. Shuneyko, O.V. Chibisova
80,00 ₽

UDC 811.161.1`37

DOI 10.20339/PhS.4-23.025


Shuneyko Alexander A.,

Doctor of Philology, Associate Professor,

Professor of the Linguistics and Intercultural

Communication Department

Komsomolsk-on-Amur State University


Chibisova Olga V.,

Candidate of Culturology, Associate Professor,

Associate Professor of the Linguistics and Intercultural

Communication Department

Komsomolsk-on-Amur State University



The relevance of the work lies in the fact that although the words гра́вер and гравёр have been actively used in the Russian language for three hundred years, today ortho-epic and explanatory dictionaries contain mutually exclusive evaluations of these words. That is, for three centuries their functioning has not been unambiguously established. There is every reason to believe that the cause for this is the specificity of interlingual contacts (German, English, Russian and French), which set different directions for the functionality and semantics of words. This study is aimed at clarifying the etymology of words, their semantic content and the nature of their use in speech. It is gradually revealed how the use of words is connected with the linguistic and cultural context, how it reflects interlingual contacts and captures the extralinguistic reality associated with the specifics of professional activity, with the predominant influence of one or another language on Russian and with the perception of one or another type of activity by the language community.

From the analysis of the etymological, pragmatic and orthoepic characteristics of the units, it was concluded that гра́вер and гравёр are not variants of one word, but different words, approximately at the same time borrowed into Russian from different languages. Initially, these words were in a relationship of free variation, but gradually their meanings and uses were differentiated so much that now we can already talk about the establishment of a spontaneous speech norm. The word гравёр denotes a creative occupation, and the word гра́вер denotes a working profession.

Keywords: гра́вер, гравёр, interlingual contacts, etymology, orthoepy, semantic differentiation, narrowing and widening of meanings.



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