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Kipchak-Polovtsian (Tatar) language of the Crimea of the XIII century

A.M. Memetov
80,00 Р


Memetov Ayder M.,

Doctor of Philology, Professor,

Dean of the Crimean Tatar and Eastern Philology Faculty,

Vernadsky Crimean Federal University



This article analyzes information about the place and time of the creation of the written monument of the Crimean Tatars language Codex Kumanikus, reveals the contribution of leading scientists in its study. The phonetic and morphological structure of the Tatar language of the Crimea of the 13th century is also described in detail. Particular attention is paid to the description of the structure of the syllable and the structure of the root of the word. The author identifies eight main vowel phonemes in the language of the Tatars of the Crimea of the 13th century — two rows of vowels (front and back), which are classified by the degree of rise of the tongue (upper, middle and lower). Also, based on the analysis of the Codex of Kumanikus, the author indicates the presence of 23 consonants in the Tatar language of the Crimea of the 13th century. Seven voiced consonants have blank pairs: b – p, g – k, d – t, z – s, γ – q, с – ç, v – f. In borrowed words there is an aspiratory faint sound [h]. The harmony of vowels in the common Turkic words was mainly observed, however, in words of a foreign language origin it is not always maintained. The stress in the word in the Tatar (Kuman) language was forceful. Moreover, in the language of the Codex dialect differences are clearly traced in the field of vowels and consonants, as well as in the dialects of the modern Crimean Tatar language. All provisions of the article are accompanied by a sufficient number of examples from the written monument of the 13th century Codex Cumanicus.

Keywords: Cumans, Polovtsy, Tatars, phonetics, vowels, consonants, classification, syllable, root structure.



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